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外语学习
英语语法:倒装
日期:2014-10-24 浏览:28人次 来源:深圳可可家教网
摘要:谓语动词放在主语之前的这种语法现象称为倒装。从倒装的形式来看,可分为全部倒装(full inversion)和部分倒装(partial inversion)两种。前者是指整个谓语置于主语之前,而后者仅是指助动词、情态动词或be 动词等功能置于主语这前。
  谓语动词放在主语之前的这种语法现象称为倒装。从倒装的形式来看,可分为全部倒装(full inversion)和部分倒装(partial inversion)两种。前者是指整个谓语置于主语之前,而后者仅是指助动词、情态动词或be 动词等功能置于主语这前。引起倒装的情况多种多样,倒装的表现形式大体有下列几种:
 
  1.在疑问句中
  例1:How are you getting along with your work?
  例2:Is this report written in detail?
  注:如疑问词作主语或者作定语修饰主语时,不发生倒装。
 
  2.在there be 及其类似结构中
  例1:There are forty students in our class.
  例2:There seem to be still some elements undiscovered yet.
  例3:There stands a bridge across the river.
 
  3.在表示祝愿的句子中
  例1:Long live the People’s Republic of China!
  例2:May you succeed!
  例3:Dog-tired though they were, they continued to march on.
 
  4.在省略if 的虚拟语气条件状语从句中
  这类句子中有were, had, should等词时,把were, had或should置于句首。
  例1:Were there no air or water, there would be no life in the world.
  例2:Had you been more careful, such spelling mistakes might have been avoided.
 
  5.在so, nor, neither或no more开头的句子中
  此类句子通常表示前面一句话中的谓语所说明的情况,也适用于另一句中的主语。例如:
  1)This problem is not difficult and neither is that one.
  2)Coal is under the ground in some places, and so is oil.
 
  6.在以具有否定意义的副词、连词及词组开头的句子中
  这些词和词组通常有:rarely, never, scarcely, no sooner, little, few, hardly, seldom, at no time, in no way, on no account, nowhere, nobody, not only等。例如:
  1)Visit our stores. Nowhere else will you find such magnificent bargains.
  2)Hardly had he finished his work when the telephone rang.
  3)Not only did he complain about the food, he also refused to pay for it.
  4)Little did we think his speech had made so deep an impression on his audience.
 
  7.在强调表语时
  例1:Worst of all were the humiliations.
  例2:Such is the case.
 
  8.在强调宾语时
  例1:Still greater contributions should we make to our socialist construction.
  例2:Useful chemical fertilizer can we make from the waste liquid.
  注:当前置宾语由“not a +名词”或者“not a single +名词”构成时,也会引起倒装。例如:
  Alice had a terrible time touring that country. Not a day did she spend without having some unpleasantness with waiters in the hotel.
 
  9.在强调状语时
  (1)当句首状语为方位词或拟声词,谓语动词为go, come等表示位置转移的动词时句子须倒装。例如:
  1)Up went the plane.
  2)In came the chairman and the meeting began.
  注:如果主语是代词则不发生倒装。例如:
  1)Out they rushed!
  2)Lower and lower he bent.
  
  (2) 当句首状语为表示地点的介词词组时,句子须倒装。例如:
  1)Round the corner walked a large policeman.
  2)Under the table was lying a half-conscious young man.
 
  (3)当句首状语由“only +副词”,“only +介词词组”,“only +状语从句”构成时,句子须倒装。例如:
  1)Only yesterday did he find out that his watch was missing.
  2)Only because there were some cancelled bookings did he get some tickets in the end.
 
  (4)当句首状语为here, there, now, then等时,句子须倒装,主语是代词时,句子不用倒装。例如:
  1)Here is a ticket for you.
  2)Now comes your turn.
  3)Here he comes.
 
  (5)以关联词so (…that)开头的句子中,句子须倒装。例如:
  1)So small was the mark that I could hardly see it.
  2)So quickly did the workmen finish their work that they were given a bonus.
  3)So much does he worry about his financial position that he can’t sleep at night.
  注:在该结构中,“so +形容词”是表语的前置;“so +副词”是状语的前置。
 
  10.在直接引语之后
  在叙事性书面语中,直接引语后常跟asked Mary, answered John, said the old lady, grunted Peter之类的词语。在这些词语中,动词常的主语之前,主语是代词时,不用倒装。例如:
  1)“What do you mean?” asked Henry.
  2)“What do you mean?” he asked.
 
  11. often, many a time等表示频度的状语置于句首时
  例如:Often did they think of going there, but they never had a chance.
 
  12.在as, though引导的让步状语从句中
  在as, though引导的让步状语从句中,一般将形容词、副词或名词等置于句首。例如:
  1)Small as the atom is, we can smash it.

  2)Big as the workpiece is, it is turned out with 

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